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    1    Dagger nematodes are vectors of which virus?

a.    Prune dwarf
b.    Tomato ring spot
c.    Professor Plum pox
d.    Prunus necrotic ring spot

    2    Minerals make up what percentage of typical soil?

a.    5 percent
b.    45 percent
c.    63 percent
d.    95 percent

    3    What percentage of herbicides used in the western United States contain the active ingredient glyphosate?

a.    10 percent
b.    20 percent
c.    40 percent
d.    80 percent

    4    Which of the following is not an herbicide?

a.    Rage
b.    Recoil
c.    Goal
d.    Poast
e.    Palace

    5    Which of these Geneva rootstocks is the smallest?

a.    G.11
b.    G.16
c.    G. 65
d.    G.202
e.    G.935

    6    Which type of uncomposted solid manure has the highest nitrogen level?

a.    Beef
b.    Dairy
c.    Poultry
d.    Swine

    7     True or false?  Grasses are good hosts for pests.   

    8    Which is considered the most essential nutrient for plant growth, after nitrogen?

a.    Calcium
b.    Phosphorus
c.    Potassium
d.    Sulfur


Q1:    b. Dagger nematodes vector tomato ring spot virus, which causes peach stem pitting. (“Protect peaches from nematodes,” April 15, 2012)
Q2:    b. Soil is typically made up of 45 percent minerals and 5 percent organic matter. The rest is air and water. (“Organic matter matters,” April 15, 2012)
Q3:    c. (“Glyphosate resistance,” April 15, 2012)
Q4:    e. (“Tree fruit herbicides,” April 15, 2011)
Q5:    c. G.65 is similar in size to Malling 27. (“Get spacing and rootstock right,” April 15, 2012)
Q6:.   c. Poultry manure contains twice as much nitrogen as beef manure and four times as much as dairy manure. It also contains much more phosphorus. (“Organic matter matters,” April 15, 2010)
Q7:    False. (“Avoid weedy orchard floors,” April 15, 2012)
Q8:    b. (“Understanding soil health,” this issue)