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Virus-free peach trees

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Simon Scott moves plants at the Musser Fruit Research Farm’s greenhouse, where about 300 trees of a hundred low-chill cultivars will be grown.
Richard Lehnert

Until plum pox virus (PPV) appeared in Pennsylvania peach orchards in 1999,

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Pear psylla pheromone discovered

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The newly discovered pear psylla pheromone is being tested in the field to find out how attractive it is to males. This mesh sticky trap has a septa of the chemical in the middle.
CHRISTELLE GUÉDOT,

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Good Stuff

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New spraying book
Dr. Andrew Landers’ new book Effective Vineyard Spraying is now available for purchase from Cornell University. Landers, who directs the application technology program at Cornell, has conducted sprayer workshops for growers from coast

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Fungicide tools and resistance management guidelines

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As of spring 2011, growers in eastern Washington have several new fungicides at their disposal for managing powdery mildew.

For cherry growers, new products include Adament ­(tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin), Quash (metconazole), and Unicorn (tebuconazole + sulfur).

Four

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Stinkbug spreads in Pacific Northwest

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Wasps that parasitize brown marmorated stinkbug eggs are being screened in quarantine.
Bugwood

Apple growers in the Mid-Atlantic region figure they suffered $37 million in crop damage last year caused by the brown marmorated stinkbug, and that’s

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IPM in peril

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For nearly 40 years, integrated pest management  has been the hallmark of progressive thinking in fruit production and agriculture generally. If you used IPM, you were on the cutting edge.

So imagine how surprised New York

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Who’s making the decisions?

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A thousand pear growers in Washington and Oregon received a survey this spring asking about their pest management ­practices.

Dr. Jessica Goldberger at Washington State University’s Department of Crop and Soil Sciences in Pullman, is conducting

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Counting the benefits of biocontrol

A more expensive pesticide might be more economical if it lets natural enemies do their work.

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Effective, economical weed control

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The Wonder Weeder and similar tools deliver orchard weed control at less cost than chemical controls.

The Holy Grail that organic apple growers are looking for is an organically acceptable herbicide that acts like glyphosate or

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Cutting costs of IPM

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Vince Jones at Washington State University is testing the new Z-Trap, which zaps insects and records when they were trapped. It might be possible to remotely identify the type of insect, also.

The key to integrated

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Help needed for invasive stinkbug

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Brown marmorated stinkbugs overwinter in protected areas, emerge in April in the mid-Atlantic area, and lay eggs from May through August.

Entomologists in the mid-Atlantic states are still honing their pesticide recommendations so fruit growers will

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Fumigant regulations keep coming

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Soil fumigation, like this broadcast application, now requires that fumigation management plans be developed to include a long list of components.

The soil fumigation landscape has changed ­dramatically in the last few years. Effective postplant nematicides

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Read the label

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Marestail, or horseweed, has been confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate in California.

Have you read your glyphosate herbicide label lately?

Today’s glyphosate herbicide is not the same as it was when first introduced as Roundup by

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Tips on how to avoid glyphosate damage

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As you approach weed control this spring, remember the word SUPPLY.

That’s the acronym Dr. Hannah Mathers developed to help orchardists and nurserymen prevent injury to their trees as they go about the process of controlling

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Tree safety is key issue with herbicides

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Choosing a herbicide program for an orchard is not so simple as choosing which herbicide kills what weeds and when. A careful reading of the label of any herbicide reveals a host of warnings, most

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Newer herbicides join the arsenal

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Among the newer herbicides that fruit growers should look at are Treevix, Alion, Matrix, Spartan, and Sandea, and there are new formulatons of Sinbar and Rely, says Michigan State University weed control specialist Dr. Bernie

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Who’s eating codling moth?

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This article is part of a series on the multistate project “Enhancing Biological Control in Western Orchards.”

How big a role can predators play in controlling codling moth in fruit orchards? That’s a question that Dr.

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Clean plant center has new manager

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James Susaimuthu inspects plant material in the Fruit Tree Clean Plant Center’s greenhouse.

One of the goals of Dr. James Susaimuthu, new program manager of the Fruit Tree Clean Plant Center, is to use his diagnostic

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How to manage scab and mildew

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Powdery mildew appears as superficial, white powdery growth on leaves and shoots that results in the stunting and distortion of young growth. Right: ruit like this Jonathan apple, when infected with powdery mildew, are stunted

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ARM studied in cherries

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In the cherry orchards of northwest Michigan around Traverse City, growers use a mixture of methods to control their archenemies: cherry fruit fly, plum curculio, and cherry leaf spot.

Some growers use airblast sprayers while others

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Does ARM still work in modern orchards?

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Penn State entomologist Dr. Larry Hull has spent much of his 35-plus-year career perfecting and advocating a technique called alternate row middle (ARM) spraying for insect control. The technique started in New York, came to

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Drosophila parasitoid found

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A female wasp attacks a spotted wing drosophila pupa
PhotoS COURTESY OF PETER SHEARER AND PRESTON BROWN, OSU

Scientists at Oregon State University have identified a parasitoid of the spotted wing drosophila, raising hopes that in the

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Good Stuff

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Sweet success
A new series of scab-resistant apples called “Sweet Resistants” developed by the Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti (CIV) in Italy was among the ten finalists for the Fruit Logistica Innovation Award during the Fruit Logistica trade

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Watch out for the good guys

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Researchers have been testing different types and colors of traps for monitoring beneficial insects. This white sticky trap, placed next to an insect attractant, caught many lacewings.
Photo by Geraldine Warner

New monitoring tools are providing a

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Beekeepers fear loss of forage

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The purple spotted knapweed flower is attractive to bees and a good nectar producer: However, once it gains a foothold, spotted knapweed kills competing vegetation and creates conditions for its own spread.
Photo by James H.

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Researchers tackle apple weevil

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Small and black, the apple flea weevil looks a bit like its larger snout beetle relative, the plum curculio.
Photo by matt grieshop, michigan state university

A coalition of partners in four Midwestern states has applied for

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Rainfastness of pesticides varies

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John Wise carries out his rainfastness work on grapes and apples at Michigan State University’s Trevor Nichols Research Complex, where he is coordinator of research.

Folklore says that after a heavy rainfall, you might as well

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Buffers would make orchards vulnerable

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If no-spray buffers proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency go into effect, orchardists will be unable to use critical pesticides on a large proportion of their acreage, including products that will be necessary to

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Stinkbugs on the move

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Adult brown marmorated stinkbugs feed on ripe peaches, a preferred fruit.

A monitoring trap in a commercial apple orchard drew large numbers of bugs. Some traps attracted 2,000 bugs.

The brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, is rapidly

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Defense strategies

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Brown marmorated stinkbug nymphs develop through five instars, all feeding on fruit. Nymphs and adults cause both external and internal injury.
Photo by Tracy Leskey

One of the easier ways of monitoring the brown marmorated stinkbug’s invasion

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Grower battles bug

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PHOTO BY TRACY LESKEY

Gerrardstown, West Virginia, apple grower George Behling is one very concerned grower. He first saw this stinkbug two years ago, but didn’t distinguish it at first from ordinary stinkbugs, which have been

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Ready for drosophila

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Spotted wing drosophila larvae that hatch from eggs inside the fruit sometimes pop out and walk around on the surface. The spotted wing drosophila can pupate inside the cherry, outside the cherry, or halfway out.
PHOTOS

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A primer on Botrytis cinerea

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Dr. Wayne Wilcox of Cornell University says Botrytis cinerea as a weak pathogen that prefers injured, senescent tissue, such as old blossom parts and ripening fruit. The more ripe the fruit, the more susceptible it

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Bunch rot strategy for 2011

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PHOTO COURTESY OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY

For Washington grape growers who had a bunch rot problem in 2010, efforts to get rid of any carryover crop are worthwhile, says a New York plant pathologist. Growers should also

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Botrytis comes to dry Washington

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Latent infections inside a cluster can take over the bunch by harvest time.
PHOTO COURTESY OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY

Last year’s cool season not only challenged growers and winemakers with slow fruit ripening, it also brought bunch rot

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Will the new pest go after grapes?

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Grape growers learn to identify spotted wing drosophila at a Washington State Grape Society meeting.
Photo by Melissa Hansen

Preliminary tests conducted last fall indicate that Washington State grapes might not be attractive to the spotted wing

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Cougarblight model updated

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Washington State University is working to help growers be better prepared to fight fireblight.

Washington State University’s Cougarblight model is being updated to improve its ability to predict when conditions are conducive to fireblight.

The model uses

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Sap beetles attacked Michigan cherries

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The strawberry sap beetle was one of three species identified in cherry orchards. The other two were dusky and picnic sap beetles.
Photo by Stephen Luk

Cherry growers around Traverse City, Michigan, were plagued last season by

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Obliquebanded leafroller bugs tart cherry growers

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Leafroller larvae form webs and use them to curl leaves into protective structures.
Photo Courtesy Of Washington State University

Obliquebanded leafroller has been increasing as a problem in tart cherries in recent years, where the black-headed green

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Opportunistic fungi

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Disease organisms invade injured tissue and develop cankers that release spores. Some red strains of McIntosh are susceptible, for reasons unknown, to opportunistic diseases that kill branches.
Photos courtesy of george sundin, Michigan State University

Starting in

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Watch for crown gall and vine decline

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Vineyardists in the Pacific Northwest have been relatively lucky regarding the number of grape diseases they have to worry about. But recent experiences indicate that Washington growers should also watch for diseases associated with vine

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BUYER BEWARE: Certified may not be clean

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Recent Washington State grower experiences of finding disease in a vineyard planted with certified stock have highlighted the weaknesses of state plant health certification programs and the need for program improvement.

“We thought we had something

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A program for scab control

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Photos courtesy of kerik cox, cornell university

Growers producing apples in the cool, damp northeast quadrant of the United States need to take a step-by-careful-step approach to apple scab control—starting early and being meticulous—or they can

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Little cherries, little flavor

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The cool weather of 2010 highlighted a growing concern about little cherries showing up in some orchards. Follow-up testing by Washington State University confirmed that the trees were infected with a dreaded cherry disease that

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Tackling scab resistance

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Apple growers in the Midwest who stuck by the “old ways” of applying fungicides have not faced the problem of apple scab becoming resistant to fungicides. The old ways employed protectant fungicides like captan and

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Scab-resistant varieties need protection, too

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When apple breeders in New Jersey, Indiana, and Illinois came together in 1926 to form the Purdue-Rutgers-Illinois university collaboration called PRI, their ­number-one goal was to create new apple varieties that were scab resistant.

They did

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Spin your weeds away

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After years of sitting on a tractor to knock down vineyard weeds with an old grape hoe, only doing about an acre an hour and always causing some vine damage, Dave Kohler finally reached his

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Good Stuff

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With Come Unglued, there is no need to replace expensive PVC fittings.

Quick PVC pipe fix
Come Unglued is a new tool designed to save time and money when repairing PVC pipes. The tool uses heat to

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Rootstock effects on wine are minor

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Despite the discovery near Kennewick in 1894 of the destructive grapevine root pest phylloxera, the vast majority of Washington State’s vineyards continue to be planted to wine and juice grapes grown on their own roots.

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Breaking the weed cycle

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Wapato, Washington, grape grower Mike Sauer has experience with replanting both wine and juice grapes. Wine grapes, when following wine grapes in a vineyard with wide spacing between vine rows, are relatively easy, but Concords

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