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  • Tree density has a highly significant positive effect on yield.
  • Tree density has a highly significant effect on trunk diameter.
  • Profitability increases with increasing tree density up to 1,000 trees per acre.
  • Fruit yield has a large effect on profitability.
  • Fruit price has the greatest effect on profitability.
  • With high fruit prices, the optimum density is high.
  • Regardless of land cost or interest rate, the optimum density is about 1,000 trees per acre.
  • At high planting densities, tree price has a large impact on profitability.
  • Higher density systems reach full production more quickly.
  • Higher density orchards do not ultimately produce higher yields per acre.
  • Higher tree densities usually bring higher investment and higher risk.
  • The best combination of high profitability without excessive risk is achieved by the tall spindle system for fresh fruit blocks and vertical axis for lower-priced or processing blocks.