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Seaweeds tested for pest control

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Seaweed extracts are typically used by growers with the aim of improving tree growth and enhancing fruit yields and quality. Although the extracts are regulated and marketed as plant growth regulators, entomologists have been studying

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Good to Know

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Grape growers have been closely watching the spread of the brown marmorated stinkbug (Halyomorpha halys Stål). It was first identified in 1996 in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and has spread to 36 states. In 2010, a warm

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Parasite studied in quarantine

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Scientists around the United States are studying a natural enemy of the brown marmorated stinkbug that has been imported from China with the hope that it might help keep the pest in check in this

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Fireblight expert retires

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Larry Pusey has used crab apples for his fireblight studies, as they can be manipulated to bloom year round in the greenhouse.
Geraldine Warner

For almost 20 years, Dr. Larry Pusey has been focused on researching a

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Biocontrol veteran arms for battling brown marmorated stinkbug

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Pennsylvania State University’s Dr. David Biddinger is a veteran in the army battling for better biocontrol, and it’s had its ups and downs. But it has made him confident that patience and diligence can pay

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Clean vines keep viruses out

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Washington State’s grape industry teamed up with researchers and regulatory officials last summer to educate growers and ­vintners about the importance of clean plants and about the process of certifying plant materials.

Grapevine leafroll disease and

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Plant in clean ground

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Grape selections that come out of the Clean Plant Center-Northwest Grapes are certified to be free of known grape viruses and crown gall disease, making them the cleanest in the nation. But years of work

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Good Stuff

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Bayer purchases AgraQuest
Bayer Crop Science, headquartered in Germany, has purchased the U.S. biological crop-protection company AgraQuest, Inc., for $425 million plus milestone ­payments, according to a Bayer news release.

AgraQuest, headquartered in Davis, California, is a

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Stinkbug biocontrol

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Perdue University Extension

Brown marmorated stinkbug, an invasive insect from Asia, swept over the Mid-Atlantic states’ fruit crops like a tsunami in the fall of 2010, causing millions of dollars in damage to peaches and apples

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Insect-resistant varieties

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Scientists at Washington State University hope to breed apples with resistance to key apple pests.
Joseph Schwarz, a doctoral student with WSU in Wenatchee, this summer reported progress in identifying apple cultivars that seem less appealing

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Sweet!

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Scientists are testing a sweet idea that might help organic cherry growers manage insects, birds, and diseases all in one go.

Organic growers have been successfully using the GF-120 protein bait to control the key pest,

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Soft spray program for pears

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Though a no-organophosphate codling moth control program is more expensive at first, it’s not long before growers are saving money, says Bruce Kiyokawa, a pest control advisor with Chamberlin Distributing Company in Hood River, Oregon.

Kiyokawa

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Cooperative effort defeats pests

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An areawide effort to control codling moth without organophosphate chemicals has resulted in better control of both codling moth and pear psylla as well as lower pesticide costs for a group of pear growers in

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Good Stuff

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New cherry sorters

Chelan Fruit Cooperative has about 600 year-round employees, but needs an additional 1,000 packing house workers during the cherry season. It installed a new cherry grader at its Brewster plant this season to

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Focus on soil health

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Apple seedlings grown in soil infested with root-lesion nematodes (on the left) and in soil without nematodes (on the right).

Whenever there is evidence of nematode problems in an orchard or vineyard—such as poor growth or

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Living with plum pox

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Jim Bittner, pictured with a tour group in his New York orchard, pulled out 20 acres of peaches when a plum pox-positive tree was found in his orchard. He is worried about Canada dropping its

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Canadians will reduce pressure to eliminate plum pox

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In the “usual” journalistic process, reporters find expert sources and ask questions, then ask additional questions as the answers dictate. This process did not work in developing this article.

On both sides of the U.S.-Canadian border,

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Spotlight on apple skin problems

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Cracks in the fruit cuticle can form soon after bloom (back), exposing the underlying hypodermal cells to air, stimulating a wound response that results in russet (front).

When apples have bad skin, they’re less appealing to

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Steps to manage canker

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Scientists have developed the following ­integrated approach to manage canker in cherries:

Avoid interplanting new with old trees. Rain can splash inoculum from old trees onto the young, healthy trees.
 Do not use sprinkle irrigation on trees

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Not just a raincover

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This Dutch cherry orchard has a rain cover and is enclosed on the sides with netting to keep out insects and birds.
Photo by Geraldine Warner

So-called rain covers for cherries provide benefits far beyond just protecting

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Bacterial canker requires an integrated approach

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A canker from the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae has developed in this young cherry tree.
Photo by Ken Johnson, OSU

With copper bactericides failing in some areas to control bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae) in cherries, growers will have

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Neonicotinoids and bees

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A spate of new studies came out this spring, all of them seeking to link neonicotinoid insecticides to mortality in honeybees, bumblebees, and several kinds of native bees, and all of the studies getting wide

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Watch out, codling moth!

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Left: A female Neoscona oaxacensis orb-weaving spider. Top: Cheiracanthium spiders are known as yellow sac spiders. They are usually pale colored and are 1/5 to 3/8 inch long. Gut-content analysis has shown evidence of feeding

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Choosing not to replant

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An example of layering, in which a cane is brought from the old Cabernet Sauvignon cordon on the right to where a vine was missing, burying it so that a new sho ot would emerge

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Organic viticulture is all about timing

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Bill Powers used common materials—screen mesh, bottoms of plastic jugs—to construct his pest fan.
Melissa Hansen

The key to making organic practices effective in the vineyard boils down to timing, says organic wine grape pioneer Bill Powers.

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Lone organic grower finds it tough

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Most of Owens’s orchards are surrounded by mature timber. On this mountain, he has three isolated orchards, each about a half mile apart. Luckily, infrastructure is good, as the landowner built good roads at his

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Promising organic herbicide found

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These large crabgrass seedlings show the effect of preemergence application of manuka oil. Control is on the right. Concentrations of manuka oil increase toward the left. Large crabgrass was completely controlled with 1% of oil

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Niche product

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Sevin (carbaryl) will continue to be available for chemical thinning and pest control in tree fruits, says Dr. Jonathan Akins, director of regulatory affairs with the supplier Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc.

Tessenderlo recently bought Sevin from Bayer

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Eastern organic apples

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Until now, Owens has worked with orchards established conventionally and converted to organic.

This year, Anthony Owens will start his second decade as a grower of organic apples. That’s likely a record for his location.

Back in

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Fumigant regulations keep coming

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Soil fumigation, like this broadcast application, now requires that fumigation management plans be developed to include a long list of components.

The soil fumigation landscape has changed ­dramatically in the last few years. Effective postplant nematicides

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Read the label

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Marestail, or horseweed, has been confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate in California.

Have you read your glyphosate herbicide label lately?

Today’s glyphosate herbicide is not the same as it was when first introduced as Roundup by

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Tips on how to avoid glyphosate damage

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As you approach weed control this spring, remember the word SUPPLY.

That’s the acronym Dr. Hannah Mathers developed to help orchardists and nurserymen prevent injury to their trees as they go about the process of controlling

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Tree safety is key issue with herbicides

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Choosing a herbicide program for an orchard is not so simple as choosing which herbicide kills what weeds and when. A careful reading of the label of any herbicide reveals a host of warnings, most

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Newer herbicides join the arsenal

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Among the newer herbicides that fruit growers should look at are Treevix, Alion, Matrix, Spartan, and Sandea, and there are new formulations of Sinbar and Rely, says Michigan State University weed control specialist Dr. Bernie

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Who’s eating codling moth?

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This article is part of a series on the multistate project “Enhancing Biological Control in Western Orchards.”

How big a role can predators play in controlling codling moth in fruit orchards? That’s a question that Dr.

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Leafroller challenges cherry growers

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Obliquebanded leafroller larva
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture

Tart cherry growers need to use a modern, effective insecticide to control obliquebanded leafroller about two weeks before ­harvest—or risk delivering a contaminated crop that may be rejected by the

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New York apple growers on alert for strep-resistant fireblight

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Dead terminal shoots on apple trees caused by infection by fireblight bacteria.
COURTESY OF KERIK COX

Apple growers in New York State were not granted the Section 18 emergency use permit they requested from the U.S. Environmental

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Clinic can diagnose crop ailments

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Karen Ward runs WSU’s Plant Pest Diagnostic Clinic.

If you find strange rots or spots on your fruit trees or some mysterious ailment, Washington State University’s Plant Pest Diagnostic Clinic is ready to help out.

Karen Ward,

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Pests sneak into U.K.

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Two new pests—the brown marmorated stinkbug and spotted wing drosophila—have snuck into the United Kingdom but are not yet established there.

Two adult brown marmorated stinkbugs were intercepted at a U.K. airport in 2010 in passenger

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Stinkbug watch

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Entomologists in New York State developed a clever way of keeping an eye out for inroads by the brown marmorated stinkbug. It’s been found across the state. So far, however, numbers have stayed small, and,

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Organic control for flea weevil

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Damage by apple flea weevil.
Matt Grieshop­­­

Organic apple growers in the Midwest appear to have a relatively simple solution to their problems with apple flea weevil, which appeared suddenly as a problem in Michigan two years

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New pests threaten Washington grapes

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Doug Walsh, holding a mealybug pheromone trap, says that such traps have been used throughout the state to look for vine mealybug. Thus far, the destructive pest that’s prevalent throughout California grape regions, has not

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Trapping for grape mealybug

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Brian Bahder transfers a first-instar grape mealybug from a grapevine leafroll-diseased Concord vine to a healthy Concord vine to assess mealybug competency as a vector.
Melissa Hansen

With the insidious spread of grapevine leafroll disease in Washington

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New pesticide safety guide released

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Many practical ideas to solve everyday problems with pesticide handling have been invented and used by growers throughout Washington State. The Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, known as PNASH, studied these farm-bred and

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New options for fireblight control

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Fireblight in apple.

New products could be registered in the United States this season to manage fireblight in apples and pears.

One is Blossom Protect whose active ingredient is the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. It was developed by

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Reduced risk?

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A three-year study just completed in Michigan apple orchards showed that reduced-risk pesticides—which growers are now adopting—are more damaging to the functional ecology of the orchards than the products they are replacing.

Orchards using these reduced-risk

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Stinkbug poses BIG THREAT

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The dreaded brown marmorated stinkbug is gradually making its way towards major tree fruit and grape growing regions in ­Oregon and Washington where $4 billion in crops are at risk.

This stinkbug species, which originated in

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Stinkbugs found in sweet cherries

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Stinkbugs are likely to move into cherry orchards by mid- to late July.
Photo courtesy of washington state University

Stinkbugs in the past haven’t been of much concern for Pacific Northwest cherry growers. But with later varieties

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New pest keeps industry guessing

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A female spotted wing drosophila is about to enter a Contech apple cider vinegar trap. WSU scientists will be trapping for the pest during the coming season and will send out e-mail alerts.
ELIZABETH BEERS, WSU

Will

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How to conserve beneficials while fighting stinkbug

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Penn State University entomologist Dr. David Biddinger provided some rules of thumb growers can apply so as not to destroy all natural enemies and the integrity of integrated pest management programs as they go about

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